Interdisciplinary Journal of Research and Development 2023-01-31T00:36:32+01:00 Prof. Sokol Pacukaj Open Journal Systems <p>Interdisciplinary Journal of Research and Development (IJRD), is an International official journal of the “Aleksandër Moisiu” University of Durrës, Albania. IJRD is an open-access journal that considers original articles, reviews and short communications of high scientific standard in the full spectrum of sciences. Our aim is to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among researchers, students and academic staffs. The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and academic excellence. All articles published in this journal will be peer-reviewed. Papers will be published shortly after acceptance. All users have right to access freely online all the articles published by IJRD without any charge.</p> Access of persons with disabilities to education. Current issues and case law. 2023-01-30T22:38:06+01:00 Iva Pendavinji <p>Persons with disabilities<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> enjoy the right of access to inclusive education, recognized by international and national acts. The right to inclusive education entails a transformation in culture, policy and practice, to adapt, in all formal and non-formal educational settings, the different exigencies and identities of students, as well as the commitment to remove barriers that hinder this process.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2">[2]</a></p> <p>The provision in domestic legislation imposes public authorities to take the necessary measures, in order for this right to be effectively enjoyed by disabled persons. The responsibility &nbsp;arises from Article 2 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3">[3]</a></p> <p>Herein, the obligation also includes the necessary adjustments to facilitate access in education, of which denial leads to discrimination on the basis of disability.<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4">[4]</a></p> <p>Precisely, “reasonable accommodation” implies necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5">[5]</a></p> <p>The Constitutional Court of Albania in judgment no. 48/2013, states that the obligation for "reasonable accommodation", which applies to the category of persons with disabilities, is a &nbsp;&nbsp;justified and objective differentiation , in order to guarantee the implementation of the principle of equality toward this category.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6">[6]</a></p> <p>The analysis of this concept will be attained by the implementing and controlling bodies, case by case, varying on the nature of the claims along with the possibility for making reasonable adjustments / changes by the subject, on which the obligation of adaptation falls on.<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7">[7]</a></p> <p>European Court of Human Rights, in the judgment Çam v. Turkey<a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8">[8]</a> considers that the national authorities, due to the direct and continuous contact with the vital forces of their country, are in principle more well-determined than an international court, to assess the needs and relevant conditions.<a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9">[9]</a></p> <p>Consequently, the state bodies, responsible for the implementation of legislation regarding the right of access to education for persons with disabilities, enjoy discretion on clarification and application on a case-by-case basis of reasonable accommodation.</p> <p>Practically, the margin of appreciation and allocation of reasonable accommodation, in order to avoid factual inequalities, may lead to the violation of the right of access to education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> According to Article 3, paragraph.9 of Law no. 93/2014, "Persons with Disabilities" are individuals who have</p> <p>long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments, which, in interaction with various barriers, including environmental and residence, may impede full participation and efficient of these persons in society, on equal terms with others.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2">[2]</a> General Comment of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities No.4 (2016), para.9.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3">[3]</a> Adopted in New York December 13, 2006, ratified by Law no. 108/2012.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4">[4]</a> Law no. 93/2014.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5">[5]</a> Convention "On Persons with Disabilities", Article 2.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6">[6]</a> Para. 25.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7">[7]</a> Para.27.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8">[8]</a> Çam v. Turkey, application no. 51500/08, final decision, date 23/05/2016.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9">[9]</a> Para. 66.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LEADERSHIP QUALITY AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF TEACHING AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF STUDENTS IN THE POST-PANDEMIC PERIOD 2023-01-30T23:02:40+01:00 Dhurata Lamcja <p>Effective leadership in education makes a significant difference in improving classroom learning. What is much less clear and studied is the impact that school leadership has on the quality of teaching and on students' academic achievement. A growing number of school leaders are paying attention to data showing that expert teachers are the real leaders who hold the key to student achievement. But these leaders at the administrative level face a difficult challenge: how to identify, attract and retain a staff of expert teachers who can help redesign and lead even the most challenging schools. The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of leadership on the quality of teaching, student achievement, and sustainable school success. There is still much to explore about the importance of effective leadership in schools, how to reap its benefits, and how to ensure that we do not continue to reject good leaders because of bad systems. Especially when we think of leadership in formal administrative roles, the greater the challenge the greater the impact of their actions on learning. While various studies show that there are significant effects of leadership actions on student learning across the school spectrum, other existing studies also show that the demonstrated effects of successful leadership are significantly greater in schools that are not in difficult socio-economic circumstances. Especially in the postpandemic period from which education and educational institutions emerged highly affected in terms of quality, it is important to understand the value of changing or enhancing leadership skills, and above all of reforming them as part of their efforts. for improvement or as part of school reconstruction and the impact of leadership on the quality of teaching and on students' academic achievement.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 DEWEY'S PRAGMATIC PHILOSOPHY AS AN EDUCATION REFORMER 2023-01-30T23:20:09+01:00 Ledian Rusta <p>John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy conceives philosophy itself as “the general theory of education”. Criticizing the scholastic and mechanical method of education and learning, he defends the idea that the purpose of education is the cultivation of thoughtful, critically reflective, socially engaged individuals rather than passive recipients of established knowledge. This discussion will focus on Dewey and his philosophy related to educational approaches, pedagogical issues, and the linkages that he made between education, democracy, experience, and society. Through an analytical approach will be presented his pragmatic perspective on education, founded on the principles of democracy, freedom, equality as a value to understand learning related to social life and as a heuristic for problem-solving in practice. The didactics of learning under the critical spirit of pragmatic philosophy seeks to reform knowledge and its transmission through the exercise of childs' critical and creative thinking. Education through Dewey's philosophy calls for building a critical culture related to collective and public social responsibility.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 STUDENT ASSESSMENT IN PRE-UNIVERSITY SYSTEM IN ALBANIA 2023-01-30T23:24:47+01:00 LONORA HYSOLLI <p>In the multitude of numerous and rapid changes our country is also crystallizing changes in the pre-university education system. The main directions of educational development and reform are related to the building of knowledge society, the integration in the digital age, the increase of interdependence and mobility, the changes in perceptions of learning process, the increase of the community role, the sustainable development. Education reform fundamentally affects the curriculum content, now called the competency-based curriculum. This curriculum is being implemented in the pre-university education system in Albania and the assessment process is essential in the competency-based curriculum. During the assessment process the continuous progress and the level of learning outcomes achievement defined in the core curriculum, as well as in the curricula and course programs are assessed. Through student assessment is received a full and thorough information on the acquisition level and competence demonstration of students. This research paper treats the actual situation of the pre-university schools. As a result, the descriptive methodology is being used, in order to present the changes in the Albanian education system in general, the pre-university education system in particular and the students’ assessment as a continuous process that measures performance as a result of the changes. This research paper is useful for our foreign partners as well. As a result of migratory or immigration movements, this article also treats the education situation for children. One of the obstacles encountered by children in these cases is the curriculum of the host countries and the ways used for student assessment.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Three Important Female voices of the fin de siècle American Literature 2023-01-30T23:29:54+01:00 Florinda Boriçi <p>The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of three women writers in the <em>fin de siècle</em> American Literature, specifically Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Women writers in the 1890s made great use of the short story as a suitable form for the new feminist themes of the decade such as the assertion of female sexuality and fantasy, the development of a woman’s voice and the critique of male aestheticism. Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman were prolific and innovative short-story writers experimenting during the decade and beyond with both subject and technique. While Kate Chopin wrote about female sexuality and desire with a frankness rarely seen before, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Edith Wharton tried to renew the subject and structure of fiction in order to reflect the wider cultural dislocations of the <em>fin de siècle</em>.</p> <p>All three writers felt the constraints of what was considered acceptable by the magazine editors of the late nineteenth century and they tried to find ways and means to work with the restrictions while still remaining in control of their own art. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Assistant teacher and his role in inclusive classes in lower secondary education 2023-01-30T23:43:59+01:00 Ambera DUKA (FERRI) <p>The role of the assistant teacher in inclusive classrooms is essential in supporting children with special needs. This necessity should mean adapting teaching based on the skills and needs that different children have in learning.</p> <p>For this adaptation to have a scientific basis, it must first and foremost aim at the adaptation of teaching, which is inseparable from the use of IEP in teaching, and the need for teacher-assisted assistance to students with special needs.</p> <p>This responsibility is compounded by the global situation in which we are all involved, such as the pandemic period we are going through. Teaching and special care for some children is not done only through campaigns nor only on the international day dedicated to them. Teaching and care for them should happen on daily basis, they do not accept "conditions" or "protocols" as the skills and needs that some children have do not accept the fulfillment of some of these protocol "rules". Therefore, adaptive teaching and the role of the assistant teacher is essential and a necessity.</p> <p>he findings of the study were realized by processing qualitative data using as instruments: interviews, observations and Focus group with lower secondary school teachers (SET).</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Albanian Language in the Comprehensive Dimension of Education 2023-01-30T23:49:24+01:00 Jetmira Basha <p>Albanian language is taught to Albanian schools all over the country, in Kosovo and it is taught and spoken outside the borders of Kosovo where there are Albanian, in the territory between Skopje, Gostivar, Tetovo and Dibra, in Presevo, in Bujanovac and in Medvedja, in Kraja, in Ulcinj with circles up to Bar and Chameria. Through immigration Albanian language is taught in countries where there are Albanian immigrants in Italy, USA, Germany etc. This paper seeks to make an analysis of Albanian language in the comprehensive dimension of education. Teaching and learning in the subject of Albanian language in schools encounters various difficulties. This paper will address these problems and strategies that teachers use to overcome the difficulties in this subject.</p> <p>Increasing the quality of teaching is related to all the factors and actors that influence Albanian teaching. These factors are always evolving and the main requirement is the proper functioning of these factors, cooperation between them, selection and adaptation according to the level, requirements and goals that are required to be achieved and that must be such as to be feasible and objective.</p> <p>This paper aims to present the main problems of teaching and learning in the subject of Albanian language in lower secondary education. The paper will focus on the following objectives: First, to identify the real situation of teaching and learning the subject of Albanian language. Second, the paper will also present some suggestions for the process of teaching and learning the Albanian language. The paper is important because it first presents an issue which needs a broader study than this paper. Nowadays, there are more and more problems that children have in the subject of Albanian language and therefore it would be recommended that these problems be traced to their origin.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The concept of child well-being: Parenting and school 2023-01-30T23:53:28+01:00 Ledia KASHAHU (XHELILAJ) Kinga ORZEŁ-DEREŃ kinga.orzel-dereń <p>This century is characterized by dramatic changes in all aspects of human life. Technological changes, the covid-19 pandemic and accompanying factors, fierce competition in every direction and especially in the labor market, have increased the pressure on families and children and added uncertainty and dilemmas for the future. In this context, the well-being of families and the younger generation is in question. In this study, the authors focuses on the concept of well-being and the theories on which it is based as well as the changes that this concept has undergone for several decades. They analyze the objective and subjective well-being of children based on the Theory of Ecological Systems by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992). Based on literature review, there is a high variation in the definition of the term well being. The lack of clarity on the full meaning of the term is seen as a potential factor in the misuse of this concept by professionals who support the well-being of children in schools. The authors addresses the role of the school family in the well-being of children by highlighting the importance of a systematic assessment of their subjective well-being. Finally, strategies and policies at various levels are discussed, which should be followed to ensure the well-being of new generation.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION A MUST FOR EVERY TEACHER 2023-01-31T00:01:25+01:00 Kleada Agasi <p>Teaching in this century has changed completely. Years before pupils have been divided, pupils with disabilities were part of schools for the disabled and normal pupils were part of normal schools. Nowadays some changes have happened, pupils with autism have become part of normal schools. Considering this fact teachers should be more prepared to help them in different things. In our days teachers are being trained to cope with different situations and problems but inclusive education is what they should focus on now more than ever.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Migration vs. potential migration - Why do Albanians have a great desire to migrate? 2023-01-31T00:08:45+01:00 Entela Kaleshi Zyhra Gripshi Eldisa Zhebo <p>Nowadays migration is a much-discussed phenomenon locally, nationally and internationally. Driven by the changes brought by political and military conflicts, the pressures and developments that are taking place in the economy, countries that have become globalized, climate change and the desire for a better life, today more people than ever before are moving and living beyond the borders of the country where they were born. Migration is the process of people movingacross the borders of the state where they live to another state and amigrant is an individual who leaves the country where he is living with the intention of settling permanently in another state. Migration continues to be an important issue for many countries in the world, affecting both countries of origin and host countries.</p> <p>The phenomenon of migration has an impact on several levels: the individual of the person who migrates, his family circle and the local community, and at the national level. Migration has a direct impact on the country of origin and the country of destination.</p> <p>At the individual level migrants are economically affected by their movements, migration leads to new employment opportunities; at the level of the household in the country of origin migration reduces poverty, affects human capital and improves the conditions of education and health care. Migration also has an impact at the national level, bringing about changes in the national economy and human capital at the national level.Seeing the importance of this phenomenon in Albanian society, this paper has been drafted that analyzes why our society has such a great desire to emigrate. The data of the paper compare the real emigration with the potential one.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EFFECTIVE SCHOOL MANAGEMENT IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM AND LEGAL BASIS 2023-01-31T00:19:07+01:00 Matilda Leka <p>The purpose of this study is to present an effective strategy and model for school management in support of the implementation of the curriculum and the legal basis, based on the latest most successful models in the field of education, the experiences of Western countries. To meet this goal, the study focuses on four research questions in the spectrum of managerial functions:</p> <p>&nbsp;(1) Organization- Are the schools well organized and run and to deal with their informational and educational mission in the future?</p> <p>(2) Change Management - Who should initiate change?</p> <p>(3) Planning-Who should plan the development of the school?</p> <p>(4) Implementation-Who should prepare and train children for the choice of complicated tasks and work in a well-organized, knowledge-based society?</p> <p>The study sample consists of principals of primary and secondary education schools, focusing on all types of schools in Durrës, in total about 7 schools (5 of primary education and 2 of secondary education), about 10% of schools in the Municipality of Durrës. Participants in this study are over 7 school leaders, 15 teachers, 50 parents, 50 students.</p> <p>For the collection of primary data from this sample were used interviews with individuals with special experiences (psychologists), focus group interviews with from 5-10 individuals in three categories, free written interviews, on teaching issues and teachers from open survey questions. Statistical programs were used for data processing and the method of applied multiple linear regression statistics was used for their analysis.</p> <p>The conclusions of the study are oriented towards two main pillars: the qualitative method and the quantitative one. The importance of the study lies in the presentation of a multifaceted model of a fruitful school management as it will provide instruments, paths, experiences and standard models of planning, management and real functioning of the school, the result of which are high achievements. and satisfactory fulfillment of official indicators for the school. The main limitation of this paper is the inability to directly contact and be present in European educational institutions where the problems of effective school management can be widely discussed. This limitation is balanced by the large sample size and advanced statistical methods for testing research hypotheses.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Challenges of teachers and leaders in education during the covid-19 period. 2023-01-31T00:31:21+01:00 Elda Deliu <p>The previous year turned out to be a very intense period for all of us. Packed full of unusual challenges which cause a heavy psychological burden on anyone. Different individuals coped with this situation&nbsp; in different ways.</p> <p>The most affected persons to be included in the study are teachers and heads of educational institutions.</p> <p>This paper aims to highlight the challenges faced by teachers during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, the way it is run and the impact and this situation on their psychological health.</p> <p>The participants of the study are 173 teachers from&nbsp; the city of Durrës, part of the preschool cycle, elementary education,&nbsp; lower secondary education, lower secondary education, as well as 14 heads of public and private educational institutions (school and kindergarten).</p> <p>The teachers were&nbsp; interviewed&nbsp; through the platform "Google Form", according to the Pandemic restrictions. At the end of the paper it was concluded that the difficulties&nbsp; during this academic year the teaching process faced, was of high level. Student negligence, lack of technological equipment or even the non-cooperation between teachers and parents brought&nbsp; various problems.</p> <p>Too much quarantine, online learning, excessive documentation, remain a key stress factor for teachers. It was noticed as a&nbsp; positive point the cooperation between teachers aand heads which led to the successful closing of the school year.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE CURRICULUM REFERRED TO DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING STANDARDS AND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THEM. 2023-01-31T00:36:32+01:00 Valbona Keci <p>The competencies set out in the Curriculum Framework are derived from the overall goals of preschool education and determine the key learning outcomes that children should achieve progressively and consistently throughout the preschool education system, in line with the Standards of Development and of Child Learning 3-6 years old. Standards describe the behaviors, skills, and knowledge that children of this age group should have or be able to demonstrate. Standards define what children can and are able to do, say and show as they grow, develop and move from one age group to another. The definition of standards, indicators, and strategies for their fulfillment, aims at educating and transmitting the human values and the best qualities of the Albanian people, such as nationalpride,cooperation, assistance, respect for others, empathy, honesty, love, will, perseverance, emotion management, tolerance, understanding, diversity, etc. The development and learning standards of children aged 3-6 have been designed with the new competency-based approach in mind. Having childrenatthecenterandbeingdesignedforthem, this document presents the opportunities and achievementsofchildrenatspecificageperiods,in every field of development. The primary purpose of the standards is to support the better development of preschool children.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023